We are very familiar with the word ' percentage' as it is regularly used in the media to describe anything from interest rate changes to the number of people taking holidays abroad, to the success rate of the latest medical procedures or examination results. Percentages are a helpful way to compare, apart from calculating the many taxes we pay such as income tax, VAT, insurance tax, and fuel tax, to name but a few.
Therefore, percentages are a great part of our life. But what does it actually mean?
Now, "percentage" in mathematical language means “out of 100" and “out of” means “divide by”. So, if you get
85% scores in test out of
100% that means you have scored
85 marks out of
85% = 85/100
Let's look at some other general percentage amounts, as well as their decimal and fractional equivalents.
75% = 75/100 = 3/4 = 0.75
50% = 50/100 = 1/2 = 0.5
25% = 25/100 = 1/4 = 0.25
10% = 10/100 = 1/10 = 0.1
5% = 5/100 = 1/20 = 0.05
It should be noted that dividing by
2, 50% can be found and by dividing
10, 10% can be found easily.
Now let's look at writing fractions as a percentage. For example, you get
18 values from
20 in the test. What’s the percentage?
First, as a fraction, write the information. You get
18 out of
20 values, so it's
18/20 faction. Because the percentage requires a denominator of
100, by multiplying the numerator and denominator by
5 we can turn
18/20 into a fraction out of
18/20 = 18 × 5 / 20 × 5
= 90/100 = 90%
Because we multiply the numerator and denominator by
5, we don't change the fraction value, only finding the equivalent fraction.
In the example it's easy to see that, to make the denominator
100, we need to multiply
20 by 5. But if it's not easy to see this, like with a score, say,
53 out of
68, we just write the number as a fraction and then multiply by
53/68 × 100/100
= 53 ÷ 68 × 100%
Which is 78% to the closest whole number. You can use percentage calculator for finding percentages of such calculations.
Key Facts about (%) Percentages
- Percent is another name for one hundred so that percentages are hundreds and similar to fractions and decimals, they are another way to write fractions.
- They are different from fractions and decimals because they always give a number of parts out of
- In simple terms, the percentage is the ratio of the denominator
100/10. So one way to think about percentages is to use them for comparison, for example, to ensure a discount that you will get in sales compared to the full original price. As a result of the need to compare this, the percentage of having a denominator is
100. Therefore, it is important to know what
100%refers to at each time.
- Another way to look at percentages is to think of them as operators, that is, percentages tell us to take certain actions. If we need to find VAT for an object or discount on an item, we will use the numerator and denominator in the percentage to complete the operation. Or simply you can use VAT calculator for VAT calculation.
Other uses of Percentage
In sport statistics, when the referenced number is expressed as a decimal proportion, not a percentage, the word "percentage" is often a misnomer. "Shaquille O'Neal of the Phoenix Suns led the NBA in the 2008–09 season with a
0.609 field goal percentage (
FG %)." That simply means in term of percentage O'Neal made
60.9% of his shots, not
Similarly, a team's winning percentage and the fraction of matches the club has won, is usually expressed as a decimal proportion; a team with a winning percentage of
0.500 has won
50% of their matches. The practice is likely to be related to the batting averages being quoted similarly.
It is also used to describe the steepness of a road or railway slope, for which the formula is
100 x rise/run.
That could also be expressed as the inclination angle tangent
100 times. This is the distance ratio that a vehicle would move vertically and horizontally, respectively, expressed in percentage when going up or down. The percentage is also used to express mass percentage and mole percentage of composition of a mixture.
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