In the ABC Score studies, scores <2 were likely to require massive transfusion, with sensitivity and specificity ranging from 75% to 90% and 67% to 88%, respectively, at multiple trauma centers.
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Occurrence of Hemorrhage
Before we go into the details of ABC score, it is important to understand what causes hemorrhage. All of us have negative events in our lives but at times, the intensity is more than the manageable limit. People get hemorrhage attacks when they are in severe trauma. There are certain conditions which lead to trauma. For instance, one of the reasons is depression. In severe cases, depression creates a serious trauma attack. This can obviously lead to hemorrhage. If you are a patient of clinical depression, do not ignore the problem and consult a medical expert in timely manner. Hemorrhage is a serious problem with a high rate of fatality.
What is ABC2 score?
Massive transfusion is required to deal with hemorrhage but the diagnosis covers various other details and aspects. Through the ABC Score, you can determine the possibility of massive transfusion. In other words, you have to check whether the requirement of a massive transfusion is there or not. This is actually a test which comprises of certain questions. Given below are few key points in this relation.
- There are four questions that have to be answered. The first one is related to penetrating mechanism. The user has to choose between yes and no. A zero score is awarded if the answer is no and a score of 1 is awarded if the answer is yes. Once the question has been completed, the user can move on to the other questions.
- In the remaining three questions, the user has to provide answers about systolic blood pressure, HR and positive fast. A zero is awarded for every “no” and a “1” is provided for every yes.
ABC Score Interpretation
Once the user has provided answers for all questions, the scores are added. The ABC score has the following interpretations.
- If the score ranges between 0 and, the chances of a massive transfusion being required are less. Similarly, patients should consult medical experts if the score is between 2 and 4.
- The ABC score is a measure of whether the patient requires blood intake through massive transfusion or not. This test does not provide an indication by any means about whether the patient needs a blood intake in other forms or not.
The medication and treatment of a health issue cannot be initiated until all the symptoms are clear. Massive transfusion is required when the patient suffers a hemorrhage. In addition to that, hemorrhage has very obvious signs which patients or their family members should be aware of. If some or all symptoms of hemorrhage are present, it may be an indication that the patient may need to go through massive transfusion.
Here are some common symptoms. If you notice them, approach a medical expert for assistance without any delay.
- Low Blood Pressure on a consistent scale
Some people have low blood pressure on a regular scale due to inheritance or any other reason. However, if your blood pressure suddenly goes low, it may be an indication of hemorrhage. During the diagnosis stage, the blood pressure of the patient is checked to confirm whether there are any potential chances of hemorrhage or not. If the systolic BP is below 90, the probability of facing a hemorrhage attack is quite high.
- Blurred vision and slurred speech
People who suffer or are about to face a hemorrhage lose their mind and body coordination. The vision loses clarity and such people are even able to see things present close to them. Conversing also becomes a problem for such people. In some cases, if the severity is high, patients are unable to utter any words. Even if they are able to do so, there is a lot of slurring. If you feel that these symptoms are present, do not ignore them. Approach a medical expert on an immediate scale.
- Blood traces in stools
When a person suffers a hemorrhage attack, there is internal bleeding and it flows through the stool. Hence, if you witness that you have blood in the stool, it may not be due to any common reason. Approach the doctor if there are regular traces of blood in the tool. Bloody stools are a strong symptom of hemorrhage.
- Blood In Urine
At times when there is inflammation in the urinary track, blood is excreted through the urine. However, in such cases, the intensity is low and the problem persists for a small time span. In case of hemorrhage, the situation becomes a lot more serious. First of all, the problem does not persist for a short span. It is continuous and spreads for a long duration. Hence, if feel that there is blood deposits in the urine for long persistent time spans, it can be counted as a sign of hemorrhage. It is strongly advisable to get medical help in such cases.
People require massive transfusion mostly when they have suffered a hemorrhage attack. When this problem takes place, there is a lot of internal bleeding and the patient has to undergo massive transfusion. What are the causes of hemorrhage? What are the possible reasons due to which people get struck by serious traumatic attacks?
Some core and common causes are listed below.
- Clinical Depression and Chronic Anxiety
A lot of people ignore depression and do not count it as a problem. This is where the issue actually begins. Depression is by all means a serious mental disorder. In worst cases, depression patients even commit suicide. Thus, the signs of this problem should not be ignored in any manner. If depression is not treated properly on time, it may convert into a serious large scaled traumatic attack resulting in hemorrhage.
- Depression patients usually feel low and do not have the encouragement to so anything positive. They develop the feeling that they do not have any worth. A depression patient may not apply for an employment because he would not the ambition to do so. Depression patients do not like moving around and stay in a shell. For instance, a depression patient may not have any friends circle and would prefer staying locked in a room. Such people are always surrounded by thoughts and most of them are negative. These thoughts keep piling up and eventually cause trauma.
- Anxiety is also a chronic problem and quite hard to get rid of. People who suffer from anxiety find it very hard to move in public. They are low on confidence and feel that people are making fun of them. They find it hard to perform any task in public. Unlike normal people, an anxiety patient would be unable to visit the shopping market and purchase anything. It is all about keeping a check on these signs. If you notice such signs, approach a psychiatrist right away before the problem builds up.
- Both depression and anxiety are hard to manage problems if not handled properly on time. These problems build inside the patient and weaken him on a major scale. People who do not get these problems treated eventually face a trauma attack. Thus, the key point is that one should not allow these problems to build in the first place. Other than that, self-medication is never advisable if you are facing these issues. Get hold of a psychiatrist or psychologist to get a clearer picture of the problem.
- Highly negative incidents
Some incidents taking place in our lives leave a permanent black mark. We do not want to remember them or talk about them. Some people are successful in forgetting these incidents while others are unable to walk out of them. If you keep remembering something bad that happened in your life, it would gradually turn into a trauma. In such situations, you would not be able to think about anything else. Eventually, this trauma would lead to a hemorrhage attack.
If you think that physical violence only causes harm to the body, you need to correct your perception. Violence has a strong negative effect on the mental state of an individual as well. Consider the example of a kid who has been beaten by his parents for several years. Even though, he may recover physically from the wounds but the mental damages would be hard to get rid of. These ill memories would keep haunting him for a long while. If he does not have a pleasant environment, they would turn into trauma and damage him further.
- Rape Victims
It is hard for a rape victim to get back to normal. The incident is not easy for these victims to forget. They may recover physically after a certain span of time but mental recovery may not take place at all. Rape victims suffer multiple traumatic attacks leading to hemorrhage if they are unable to get rid of the disturbing thoughts. For such people, a change in environment is very important. When they start living in a positive environment, they gradually come back to normal. However, a lot of will power is needed for this purpose.
- Losing a closed one
Death is a reality which cannot be overlooked or ignored. It is hard for most people to accept the reality of losing a closed one. Time does heal things but not for everyone. Some people are simply unable to walk about of the incident. Negative and disturbing thoughts keep compiling in the mind and eventually turn into traumatic experiences.
- If you have lost someone close to you, thinking about it continuously would obviously not make things any better. Getting busy in other things is a smart way to come back to normal and reduce the level of sadness. A change of environment is necessary for such people. You should always remember that sadness turns into trauma within no time. If you keep thinking about the same things, you would walk into depression. This would obviously increase and convert into trauma.
- People who remain sad after losing a closed one for a long span of time eventually go into trauma. They lose interest in things and are unable to concentrate on anything productive. In worst conditions, they suffer a trauma attack. Thus, eventually it can be said that staying sad would not help you out. The best way is to go for a small holiday trip so that all sad memories can be drained out.
Medical diagnosis is all about determining numerical facts. In case of massive transfusion, the goal is to determine hemorrhage. The ABC test is used to determine whether the patient is likely to suffer a hemorrhage or not.
- This test comprises of four key questions related to penetration, blood pressure, HR and positive fast. Based on the answers given by an individual, a score is calculated. A zero is given for every “no” given and a “1” is given for every yes.
- Once all the four questions have been answered, the total is determined. If the total score is between 0 and 2, the conclusion can be reached that the chances of hemorrhage are not there. Similarly the score is between 2 and 4, there is likeliness of a hemorrhage attack so medical consultation should be taken accordingly. Once the ABC test has been carried out and if the score is between 2 and 4, medical treatment should not be delayed in any manner.
If preventive techniques are applied in a careful manner, several medical diseases can be avoided and hemorrhage is not an exception. Given below are some key strategies that can be used to eliminate chances of massive transfusion.
- Avoid depressing thoughts
Getting into trauma and then combating the effects is a tough ask but if you apply the correct preventive measures, the problem can be handled in a much better manner. As it has been explained above, trauma is caused by depression. When you have negative disturbing thoughts in the mind, gradually, you would enter the condition of trauma. Mental trauma has its severity levels. It timely treatment is not given, it increases to an uncontrollable limit. In a nutshell, avoiding depressing thoughts is important. If you feel that you are getting depressed, do not hesitate in consulting a psychiatrist.
- A lot of people do not get medical attention even when they are hit by severe depression. They usually do not have positive thoughts about approaching a psychiatrist or psychologist. This is actually where the problem begins. When you do not get depression treated, it expands and turns into a severe problem.
- Trauma can be easily avoided if depression and anxiety are combated on time. People do not get struck by trauma immediately. It is depression, anxiety and other mental problems which get transformed into trauma. If you are able to combat them successfully, trauma would not be created in the first place.
- Make exercising a part of the daily routine
There is no doubt that if you have a proper routine for exercising, trauma would not strike you. Most people who are struck by trauma do not exercise on daily basis. This is where the problem starts. When you exercise, you burn out the desired energy amount. On the other hand, if you do not work out, the energy is not release in any manner. Thus, such people get mental disorders and are struck by similar issues.
According to various scientific researches, working out is an amazing strategy to stay mentally calm. It is all about having the correct routine. If you work out, you stay calm both mentally and physically. You would not get anxiety, depression or other mental issues. Most fitness experts recommend people to have workouts everyday so that mental issues can be avoided.
People who suffer from depression, anxiety or other similar problems do not work out or perform any physical activity. They simply do not have the urge to do so. The biggest challenge that they face is stepping out of the house. Depression and anxiety patients prefer staying in the house and being surrounded by thoughts. If this situation persists for a long time span, it can turn into serious trauma and cause hemorrhage as well. Thus, if you are facing depression problems, work on your routine and be involved in physical activities on daily basis.
- Get consultation when the need is there
Mental problems should never be hidden. People do not feel right about approaching a psychiatrist. They have the opinion that only insane people approach mental health experts. This is not a fact by any means. Do you know that not approaching a mental health expert accelerates mental issues like depression and anxiety?
- People tend to ignore depression and anxiety when it strikes them for the first time. This is the biggest mistake they commit. Combating depression is important so that it does not convert into trauma. The best thing in this relation is approaching a medical expert. Professional psychiatrists help in extracting the negative thoughts that reside in your mind. In addition to that, they help you in getting rid of these thoughts. The problem starts when you do not get professional help.
- Most people who have massive transfusion due to hemorrhage have a history of mental diseases. Their condition does not worsen immediately but it starts to happen when depression builds up. The continued mental sadness results in trauma attacks. In a nutshell, it can be said that if you consult a mental health expert without delaying things, you would be able to avoid trauma and hemorrhage easily.
In most cases, drugs are given to patients to calm them mentally when the conditions of a trauma are building up. As it has been explained above, depression and anxiety eventually contribute to trauma. Thus, medications are also prescribed according to the root cause.
- To reduce the chances of trauma, various therapies are tried before medical drugs are prescribed. For instance, depression patient have counseling sessions so that they can speak their heart out and the overall situation becomes better. This option words in certain cases only. In other situations, patients have to consume medical drugs and deal with the issue accordingly.
- Yoga is also one of the key techniques used to combat depression and other causes of trauma. It is a good way to calm the mind down and eliminate possibilities of trauma. However, yoga takes its time to create any effect. Hence, the will power to wait should be there. Yoga is not as quick as anti-depressants and other drugs.
There is no doubt that hemorrhage is a very serious issue and proves to be fatal in most cases. How does the problem build up? Why do people end up in this situation? The ABC test is a dependable way to determine whether an individual would suffer from hemorrhage or not. It comprises of a series of questions which have to be answered by an individual. The possibilities of massive transfusion are detected after the total score has been calculated. If the total score is between 0 and 2, the patient does not require massive transfusion. In some cases, the score is between 2 and 4. This is when the patient does need massive transfusion.
Massive transfusion is given to patients who suffer from trauma. In addition to that, trauma does not build inside a person without a core reason being there behind it. Usually, people who suffer from mental illnesses like depression and anxiety develop trauma. If these problems are not treated properly on time, they accelerate and get converted into trauma. People who face hemorrhage attacks are usually subjected to long term trauma due to various reasons. Some of them include losing a loved one, clinical depression, anxiety and violence.
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